DM [Hepatology] is a specialty of medicine that studies liver, pancreas, biliary tree, gallbladder and the management of disorders of these organs. This branch of medicine was earlier regarded as the subspecialty of gastroenterology but now it has emerged as a separate specialty of medicine. This is due to its rapid expansion and growing interest of candidates in the field of hepatology. DM in Hepatology is a three-year specialty course which is offered by only by a few colleges in India.
The increase in diseases has resulted in the steady rise of DM Hepatology graduates who are skilled in their field and can contribute to the betterment of the society. The course fees ranges between INR 30,000 - 5 lacs for the total duration. The probable salaries offered to successful postgraduates in this field are between 3-10 lacs per annum.
Top Colleges for DM [Hepatology]
DM [Hepatology]: Course Highlights
Listed below are some of the major highlights of the course
|Examination Type||Semester System|
|Eligibility||MD/MS from a recognized University|
|Admission Process||Direct admission to colleges. However, some colleges may check student's skills in through an entrance test.|
|Course Fee||INR 50,000 - 2 lacs|
|Average Starting Salary||INR 10-15 lacs|
|Top Recruiting Organizations'||Medanta Hospital, Apollo Super Speciality Hospital, AIIMS, GMC, etc|
|Top Recruiting Areas'||Hospitals, Clinics, Research Centers, Academics, etc|
|Top Job Profiles||Liver Toxicology Specialist, Hepatologist, Paediatric Hepatologist, Transplant Surgeon, etc|
DM [Neonatology]: What is it About?
There have been tremendous advances in the field of hepatology as the management of liver disease has improved tremendously. Liver transplantation outcomes are more successful than ever before.
Research in India is taking place at a fast pace and new inventions and technologies are emerging every day. Publications by Indian hepatologists in international journals which were rare earlier are now common. Emphasis is now being given on Hepatology training at post-doctoral course level (DM in Hepatology).
Important procedures studied under DM Hepatology are:
- Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
- Transhepatic pancreato-cholangiography (TPC)
- Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS)
National task forces are taking up this subject of Hepatology and studying its problems in detail. Important work on problems specific to India such as hepatitis E, Vascular diseases of liver like Non-cirrhotic Portal Fibrosis, Extrahepatic Portal Venous Obstruction l, Hepatic Venous Outflow Obstruction and parasitic hepatobiliary diseases are taken into consideration and solutions are being devised for the same.
There is an urgent need of promoting good Hepatology practice in India. Awareness about liver diseases is equally important as people do not relate hepatitis to liver cancer. Promoting research activities should also be the agenda in alleviating liver problems in the masses. Problems like absence of Hepatitis B vaccine in the state government vaccination and immunization programs still exist. The advertisements about ‘liquor brands’ are still prevalent than the ones about ill effects of alcohol or 'don't drink and drive’ campaigns.
DM [Hepatology]: Top Institutes
Listed below are some of the top institutes offering the course DM [Hepatology] in the country with the corresponding locations and fees charged by them
|Name||City||Fees per annum in INR|
|Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER)||Chandigarh||2,370|
|Institute of Liver and Biliary Sciences (ILBS)||New Delhi||70,000|
|Christian Medical College (CMC)||Vellore||1.14 lacs|
|Madras Medical College (MMC)||Chennai||30,350|
DM [Hepatology]: Eligibility
Aspiring Neurologists who wish to study DM in Hepatology can opt for this course after completing the following trajectory:
- The students must have completed their 10+2 level of schooling with subjects like biology, chemistry and physics
- The student must have successfully completed their MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) from a reputed college or institution. MBBS is a 5½ years course and includes a one-year internship period as well.
- Then the student must have gone for a MD or MS or DNB degree in any stream. MD is the specialization in one subject.
- After that the person is eligible go for DM in his chosen field. For this, he will have to attend another entrance exam in order to get admissions to this course.
DM [Hepatology]: Admission Process
To seek admission to DM Hepatology course, the candidates must have completed their MD in Pediatrics or General Medicine. They must have done this specialization from an institute recognised by the Medical Council of India (MCAI).
The institutes offering this course require that candidates must have completed their MD course well before the entrance examination for this course is conducted. Otherwise, candidates will not be permitted to appear for the entrance examination and can apply only when their MD is complete.
Given below are some of the entrance exams for DM Hepatology:
- All India D.M / M.Ch. Entrance Examination
- All India Institute of Medical Science Entrance Exam (AIIMS)
- Banaras Hindu University Entrance Exam
- Delhi University Super Specialty Entrance Test – DUMET
- Institute Of Human Behavior and Allied Sciences (IHBAS)
- University Of Delhi Entrance Exam
DM [Hepatology]: Syllabus and Course Description
A semester wise breakup of the course’s syllabus is tabulated below
|Semester 1||Semester 2||Semester3|
|Structure of Liver, Pancreas and Biliary System||Molecular Biology||Ascites and renal dysfunction in Liver disease|
|Function of Liver, Pancreas and Biliary System||Epidemiology||Hepatic Encephalopathy|
|Investigation of Hepatobiliary diseases||Cirrhosis||Non parasitic cystic diseases|
|Basic Immunology||Non-cirrhotic portal hypertension||Viral infections of Liver (Acute and Chronic Hepatitis)|
|Pathology of Liver, Pancreas and Biliary System||Portal hypertension and GI bleeding||Other infections of Liver|
|Semester 4||Semester 5||Semester 6|
|Immune disorders of Liver||Acute Liver failure||Liver diseases in elderly and pregnant|
|Alcoholic Liver diseases||Tumors of Liver and Bile duct||Nutrition in Liver diseases|
|Liver Transplantation||Biliary Tract diseases||Liver pathology|
|Non alcoholic fatty liver||Inherited metabolic||Liver imaging|
|Drug induced liver injury||Vascular disorders of Liver||Diseases of the pancreas|
DM [Hepatology]: Who should opt?
A person who wishes to study DM in Hepatology must possess the following skills. These skills will be beneficial and help him to fare well in his career ahead.
- A caring personality and humble attitude are the two qualities that are of paramount importance.
- Communication skills are required as the students have to convey their research findings and discuss the treatment with other medical staff.
- Patience and intense interest to hear the patient's side of the story are really important.
- Like any other physician, hepatologists must be dedicated to their profession. They should have a good eye-hand coordination and motivation to achieve their goal.
- Ability to work as part of a team and capable of working long, irregular hours in high-stress medical environments.
- Good managerial skills are also necessary as you will have to manage other administrative employees.
- The ability to plan purposefully so that you meet your learning needs.
- Problem-solver by nature. Must have observing, listening and inquisitive appetite.
- Should have reading, enquiring and researching habits to find solutions to difficult issues.
- Time-management and teamwork skills are imperative.
DM [Hepatology]: Career Prospects
Some of the popular avenues open to postgraduates of DM [Hepatology] are listed below with the corresponding salaries offered for the respective positions.
|Job Position||Job Description||Average Annual Salary in INR|
|Hepatologist||Hepatologists are those specialists who focus their attention on diseases, conditions and treatment of the liver.||10-30 lacs|
|Liver Toxicology Specialist||They are the ones who provide strategic direction to liver toxicity and conduct test strategies in early drug discovery projects. They also develop, implement, execute and plan approaches to de-risk liver toxicity in the recovery pipeline. They have to work as part of a global investigative team to support and heal patient.||10-15 lacs|
|Transplant Surgeon||They are medical surgeons who are specialists in organ transplant. They perform surgeries to transplant a heart, liver, kidney, or brain from a donor to a patient who is suffering terminal illness.||12-18 lacs|
|Pediatric hepatologist||Paediatric Hepatologist are the ones who treat children from the newborn period through the teen years. They specialise in pediatric and provide extensive care of infants, children, and teens. Pediatric gastroenterologist and hepatologist are trained to perform diagnostic tests for a child’s digestive system. They use instruments like endoscopes for examining the inside of the child's body. Pediatric hepatologists treat bleeding, swallowing problems and other problems of the intestines.||9-12 lacs/|