Master of Science [M.Sc] (Geology)

Course Structure:

The course is designed to provide an in-depth knowledge of the geological studies. It is divided into four semesters with theory classes and practical knowledge. After the first and third semester, the students have to take field training for 2-3 weeks in suitable geological areas. Along with these, the students are also required to submit their dissertation by the end of their fourth semester.

Scheme of Assessment:

The scheme of assessment in most of the universities for M.Sc. Geology is as follows. The marks and credits are assigned according to the core courses and electives.



Marks allotted

Geological Field Training








150- Presentation, 50- Viva-Voce



Core Courses

2.5- Theory, 1- Practical

Major Electives

2.5- Theory, 1- Practical

Minor Electives

2- Theory, 1-Practical


The syllabus for M. Sc. Geology has been structurally divided into four semesters. The course has core courses, electives and interdisciplinary courses. A brief overview of the courses offered under the degree program is as follows.

Name of the course

Topics covered


Structural Geology

Mechanical principles, Mechanics of folding and buckling, Brittle and ductile shear zones, Planar and linear fabrics in deformed rocks, their origin, and significance. The basic idea about petrofabrics and use of Universal stage, Stereographic and equal area projections, Basic idea on the structure and tectonics of Himalaya.

The paper deals with the study of the folding and fracturing of rocks, Structural analysis of Metamorphic Tectonites and mostly the fundamental and modern developments in structural geology.

Mineralogy & Crystallography

Mineralogy - Structure and classification of silicates, A detailed study of the important silicates.

Optical Mineralogy - Optical crystallography of uniaxial and biaxial crystals, Crystallography- Derivation of 32 classes of symmetry. The international system of crystallographic notation and study of Stereograms.

The paper deals with the introduction to the rock-forming minerals and other concepts related to mineralogy and crystallography.

Igneous Petrology

Magma: Its physics, nature, factors affecting magma and evolution, The Phase equilibrium of binary, Interpretation of igneous textures in terms of rate of nucleation and crystal growth. IUGS classification of the Igneous rocks, Petrology and petrogenesis of major igneous rock types, Plume magmatism and hot spots.

The paper focuses on the principles of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, magmatism in relation to diverse tectonic settings and the interpretation of igneous rocks.


Origin of Terrigenous Clastic and Non-clastic Grains, Major Carbonate Minerals, Simple Fluid Flow Concepts and Sediment Transport, Important Bed Forms and Sedimentary Structures, Grain size, Textural Parameters and their Significance, Sedimentary facies, Diagenesis of Clastic and Non-Clastic rocks, Heavy Minerals and their Importance in Determination of Provenance.

This paper traces the origin of sedimentary rocks and a practical approach to sedimentology.

Metamorphic Petrology and Thermodynamics

Mineralogical Phase Rule for Closed and Open Systems, Isograds and Reaction Isograds, Regional Metamorphism and Paired Metamorphic Belts, Laws of Thermodynamics, Gibb’s Free – Energy.

The paper covers concepts related to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology, Equilibrium thermodynamics in Petrology and Chemical Thermodynamics.

Geomorphology & Geotectonics

Geomorphology- Basic concepts and significance of Geomorphology, Geotectonics- Fundamental concept of geotectonics, its practical and theoretical importance.

The paper deals with the principles of Geomorphology, Applied Geomorphology and Indian Geomorphology along with Plate Tectonics and Crystal Evolution.


Introduction of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry, Meteorites, classification, mineralogy, origin, significance and phenomena of fall. Stable isotope geochemistry of Carbon and Oxygen and its application in Geology, Crystal Chemistry, Structure and types of atoms, Principles of ionic substitution in minerals.

The paper makes the students understand the concepts related to geochemistry, crystal chemistry and mineralogy.

General and Invertebrate Palaeontology

Modern Taxonomy, Micro-evolution, Precambrian Life, Classification of Brachiopoda, Evolutionary trends and Geological history of Brachiopoda, Palaeoecology/Functional Morphology of Bivalves and Brachiopods.

This paper is essential to understand the Invertebrate Palaeontology and Evolution and the Fossil Invertebrates.

Micropaleontology and Oceanography

Micropaleontology and its Application in studying modern and ancient environments, Brief Study of the following Types of Microfossils and their application in Oceanography: Calcareous Microfossils, Siliceous Microfossils, Phosphatic Microfossils, Organic Walled Microfossils, Application of Micropaleontology in Petroleum Exploration. Oceanography- Historical perspective, Physical Oceanography, Ocean circulation, Deep-Sea Sediments and Processes, Ocean Resources, Marine Pollution, Paleoceanography.

The papers focuses on Quaternary Environmental Micropalaeontology, Elements of Micropaleontology, Elements of Dynamic Oceanography and global warming in general.


General, Precambrian stratigraphy, Marine Palaeozoic stratigraphy, Gondawana stratigraphy, Mesozoic stratigraphy, Cenozoic stratigraphy.

The paper deals with Principles of Stratigraphy, Precambrian Geology of India and Burma.

Ore Geology

Concept of ore bearing fluids, Mineralogy, classification and genesis of petrological ore associations, A detailed study of ore minerals, Study of important industrial minerals of India.

The paper deals with Ore Geology, Ore Petrology and Industrial Minerals and Geochemistry of Hydrothermal Ore Deposits.

Fuel Geology

Coal Geology, Petroleum Geology, Atomic Fuel.

This paper is about the introduction to Petroleum Geology, Organic Petrology and Petroleum Formation and Occurrence.


Water level fluctuations, Water Well Technology.

This paper deals with the ground water hydrology and hydrogeology.

Environmental Geology and Natural Hazards

Time scales of global changes in the ecosystems, Carbon di-oxide in atmosphere, Cenozoic climate extremes, Impact assessment of degradation and contamination of surface water and ground water, Influence of neotectonics in seismic hazard assessment.

The focus of the paper is different aspects of environmental geology and geological hazards.

Remote Sensing and GIS in Geology

Fundamental Principles, Data Processing and Interpretation (Digital Image Processing – DIP), Application in Geology, Remote Sensing and GIS.

The paper is about image interpretation in geology and remote sensing.

Engineering Geology and Surveying

Engineering Geology, Surveying.

This gives an overview of the engineering involved in geological studies.

Mineral Exploration & Mineral Economics

Classification of mineral deposits for exploration, Geochemical exploration, Samples and sampling methods, Geological modeling for mineral exploration. Mineral economics and its concepts.

This paper brings the two aspects of exploration and economics together under mineralogy.


Gem and Gemstones, Application of ultraviolet rays, Electrical thermal and magnetic characters of gem, Systematic description, Synthetic gem stones, Application of gemstones: (1) Technical application and (2) Application as jewels.

This paper deals with the study of mineralogy of gems.


Introduction and approaches to Palaeobotany, Techniques of palaeobotanical studies, Classification of fossil plants and broad characters of major plant groups. Brief morphology of different plant parts, Distribution and composition of pre-Gondwana, Evolution of Flowering plants.

This is a vast paper which deals with the study of plants and fossils in the pre-Gondwana land.

Elements of Mining and Ore Dressing

Classification of mining methods, Ventilation in underground mining, Mining hazards and safety measures. Ore dressing and its importance, Dressing of Indian Metallic and non-metallic ores.

This is the scientific study of mining geology and elements of mining.

Soil Geology

Process of Soil Formation, Fabric Analysis, Paleosols, Calcrete, Laterite.

This paper deals with soil mechanics in engineering, studies of soil in India, and in general the geology of soils.

Petroleum Exploration

Identification and characterization, Elementary knowledge of geophysical methods of exploration: Magnetic, Gravity and Seismic methods.

It is the introduction of petroleum geology, petroleum formation and occurrence and petroleum geochemistry.

Vertebrate Palaeontology

General characteristics of vertebrae, Main classificatory characters and divisions of the vertebrates, Origin of vertebrate animals, General Account of the Gondwana Vertebrates, Evolutionary trends in Equidae, Study of some important genera of Fossil vertebrate with particular reference to Indian Subcontinent.

The paper deals with the in-depth knowledge about the vertebrate animals and their evolution

Top Institutes:

Name of the College

City, State

Fergusson College

Pune, Maharashtra

IIT Kharagpur

Kharagpur, West Bengal

Savitribai Phule Pune University

Pune, Maharashtra

Presidency College

Chennai, Tamil Nadu

University of Delhi

New Delhi

Aligarh Muslim University

Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

Jadavpur University

Kolkata, West Bengal

Banaras Hindu University

Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

Punjab University



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