Master of Technology [M.Tech] (Agricultural Engineering)

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Sakshi Gupta

Content Curator

Course Structure

The course of M. Tech Agricultural Engineering is based on teaching students how to yield maximum profits with available agricultural sources.

Along with theoretical classes, practical sessions are a part of the structure of the syllabus too. Seminars, industrial visits, internships are carried out throughout the course, for proper understanding of all the domains of agricultural engineering.

The integral part of the course is the subject or area in which the students wants to specialize according to their interests.

Syllabus

M. Tech Agricultural Engineering has core subjects that covers topics under Agricultural Machinery, Food processing and Engineering, Renewable Energy and Sources and Engineering and Water Resources Engineering.

The syllabus is a mixture of knowledge of civil, mechanical and chemical engineering which helps in designing equipments and tools in best possible way.

The topics covered in M. Tech Agricultural Engineering are as follows:

Subject

Topics Covered

Description

Food Chemistry and Microbiology

Classification, biological functions and nutritional importance of carbohydrate, proteins and lipids, properties of polysaccharides and their hydrolysis, physical and chemical properties of" fats and oils, Vitamins and minerals, their sources and importance in human health, Enzymes classification, kinetics of enzyme catalyzed reaction, enzyme inhibitors, Food pigments and Food flavour.

Food and its nutrient components are taught in this subject along with concepts related to Microbiology

Process Instrumentation and Control

Introduction to instrumentation. Functional elements of instruments and their presentation. Static performance characteristics, Error and uncertainties in measurement systems, Dynamic performance characteristic: Formulation of system equation, frequency response and Bode plot Transducers for force, pressure, temperature, stress, strain, flow etc. Signal conditioning elements, indicating, recording &display elements. Process controls. Measurement of food processing parameters: Temperature, pressure, flow, sp. gravity, viscosity, pH, humidity, etc. Instruments for the measurement of calorific value, dust concentration and pollution of water/air

Process of developing instruments and tools is taught in this subject.

Food Engineering –I

Size reduction and screening of solids: dry and wet grinding, size reduction equipment, size measurement and analysis, standard sieves. Membrane separation processes. Fluidization, Filtration-Theory of filtration and washing filter aids filter media, classification of filtration, Design of filtration equipment, Mixing and Agitation, Mixing phenomena, Flow pattern and impellers, vortex formation and prevention, Mixing equipment; Centrifugation, material balance, Energy balance, kinetics of chemical reactions in foods

Modifications that can be done in food and food technology are the main topics of this subject.

Transport Processes

General introduction to transport phenomena, basic microscopic momentum, thermal energy and species transport equations, expansion and reduction of basic transport equations to specific transport problems, analysis of momentum, "thermal energy and species transport. Steady, unsteady, unidimensional, multidimensional thermal energy processes .Basic mass transport equations, molecular diffusion of gases through porous media, momentum

transfer through ducts

Transportation techniques and problems occurring in transporting are the main topics of this subject.

Refrigeration Engineering

Basic principles of refrigeration. Reversed cannot cycle, ideal and actual vapor-compression cycles, compound multi-evaporator systems; vapour absorption refrigeration system, jet refrigeration system Refrigerants -nomenclature and properties. Psychometric chart, cooling loads calculations, .Cold preservation of food, chilled and frozen cold storage, important chilling and freezing techniques. Cold storage design

Mechanism of Refrigeration is taught in this subject.

Data Structure and Computer Programming

Computer- Fundamental: Hardware/Software: Computer & memory system, input/output organization and new tech., software concepts and terminology/multimedia, operating system concepts, process computer software, internet concepts/computer networks. System Analysis of Design: Structural System Design, input design and control, output system design, file and database design, system development, system control and quality assurance, documentation, system implementation, Data Structure: Introduction to data structure, arrays, lists, stacks and queue, graphs. Programming in C.

Computer fundaments used in agricultural engineering are taught in this subject.

Engineering Properties of Biological Materials

Physical properties of food materials: viz. shape density, specific gravity, porosity, Frictional, Aerodynamic and Hydrodynamic properties, Rheological properties: concept of rheology and definition of terms. Classical ideal materials, basic rheological models and their interpretation, rheological properties of solid and liquid food, Thermal properties: viz. specific heat, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity and their determination. Dielectric properties of foods, Optical Properties.

Rheological properties and thermal properties are main topics covered in this subject.

Livestock and Aquaculture Food Products Processing

Meat composition, its nutritive aspect, meat production, animal and poultry slaughtering, -postmortem changes, physicochemical changes, post rigor condition of meat, whole ~ale cuts of carcass, PSE and DFD conditions of meat . Meat curing and smoking Methods .of meat cooking, dry moist cooking, physicochemical changes during cooking, Cooking loss. Meat refrigeration, freezing, thawing and frozen storage, thawing losses, tumbling and massaging and its physicochemical effects, preservative effects. Sausages production, ground summer, emulsion and dry fermented sausages, some traditional products of meat. Meat Analysis and quality control, bacteriological tests, Rapid methods of analysis for fat, protein and moisture. Egg-composition, egg candling, storage and dehydration.. Fish preservation by icing, smoking, canning freezing, causes of fish spoilage. By products of meat, poultry and fish processing industry, Surimi production process.

Livestock and aquaculture food products and their importance is taught in this subject.

Food Process Engineering

Unit operation wise technology (process and machinery) for processing of major cereals (wheat, rice and maize), pulses, oilseeds, spices and condiments, plantation crops, sugar crops and fiber crops.

Introduction, types of processing, process and technology is provided in this subject.

Food Engineering –II

Steady and unsteady heat transfer-Mass transfer: thermal process calculation, distillation, liquid -liquid extraction, solid -liquiq extraction (leaching), gas liquid extraction, food dehydration food concentration.

Heat and mass transfer- mode of heat transfer. Methods of heat generation and application to food is taught in this subject.

Biomass Utilization and Renewable Energy Management

Sources of energy (renewable and non-renewable) and their importance in food industries (source wise- biomass, solar, wind, tidal, hydroelectric, hydrogen and nuclear etc). Energy conservation techniques (briquetting, liquefaction, gasification). Energy conservation and auditing. Decentralization and integrated energy management. Design of biogas plants. Description of solar appliances and bio-fuel plants, energy input/output analysis, Case studies.

Main topics covered in this subject are Biomass (By-products and residue) and their utilization potential for food, building materials, pulp/paper, chemical products

Food Storage Engineering

Grain Storage: levels of storage, Physical properties of grain affecting storability, Factors of spoilage. Storage entomology, fungi and mycotoxins, Treatments for enhancing shelf life, Rural storage structures, Design considerations of bulk storage structures - Grain pressure theories. Air distribution systems and aeration fans. Design considerations of bag storage / godowns. Storage of perishables/ semi-perishables: Design considerations of cold storage - heat load calculation and selection of refrigeration systems. Controlled atmosphere storage, biochemical aspect of CA storage, effects of concentrations of compositional gases on physico-chemical characteristics of Fruits and vegetables. Equipment for creating and maintaining controlled atmosphere.

Storage losses in agricultural commodities and its prevention is taught in this subject.

Food Preservation Technology

High temperature preservation, evaluation of process time and time temperature combination. Nutritional losses due to thermal processing, Mechanism of microwave heating, Penetration depth of microwave. Low temperature preservation: difference among chilling, refrigeration and freezing, evaluation of freezing and thawing time, structural changes 'in foods during freezing and thawing. Methods of freezing. Dehydration of foods: basic dehydration process, dehydration systems: Tray or cabinet dryers, tunnel dryers, pulp drying, fluidized bed drying, freeze drying, changes in, food during drying. Principles of evaporation, types of evaporators: single 'effect and multiple effect evaporator, batch type pan evaporator, rising film falling film evaporators. Intermediate moisture foods. Principles of food irradiation: energy of radiation, effect of radiation. Dosimetry of irradiation, Biological methods of food preservation: food fermentation. Hurdle technology.

Introduction to food preservation industry is given in this subject.

Dairy Products Processing

Microorganisms in milk. Quality testes of milk: platform tests, alcohol alizarin, resazurine, MBR test, etc. Types of milks: standardization and toning. Processing of milk: cleaning, chilling, homogenization, sterilization, pasteurization, separation, etc. Technology of milk products: cream, butter, cheese, khova, whey, yoghurt, ice-cream, condensed and dried milk. Dairy equipment and plant design aspects. Packaging of milk and its products- aseptic, flexible packaging. Sanitation in dairy plants

Milk, its constituents and properties is taught in this subject.

Food Quality, Standards and Regulations

Estimation of vitamins. Examination of canned food products, inspection and sensory evaluation- methods and interpretation of results. Enzyme test, extraction of pectin, measurement of colour, consistency and texture. FPO regulations, FDA standards and procedure, Quality Control criteria for different foods. Microbiological examination of food products, standards and analysis of water, Food adulteration and its detection, food intoxication, food hazards and its analysis HACCP and ISO 9000 in food industry.

Proximate constituents and their evaluation / analysis is done in this subject.

Packaging and Handling of Foods

Types of packages- aseptic packages, flexible packages etc. Packaging machines, package handling machines, package and storages. Environmental factors affecting food stability. Effect of environmental factors and need for protective packaging. Quality control and testing shelf life of fresh and processed packed foods, aseptic packaging. Importance of material handling, bulk conveying equipment (belt/chain/drag, screw/auger conveyors, pneumatic conveyors, bucket elevators etc.) Estimation of capacity and energy requirements, operation and maintenance, damage to products during mechanical handling.

Importance of packaging. Packaging materials and their properties, suitability and costs is taught in this subject.

Process Modeling and Simulation

Introduction to mathematical, correlative and explanatory models. Dimensional analysis. Lumped parameter and distributed parameter models. . Models based on Transport Phenomena principles, Response to typical inputs, Numerical and computer solution, linearization. Design and simulation of sterilization and pasteurization processes in food industry

An overview of the modeling process is given in this subject.

Design and Layout of Food Processing Plants

Consideration for location of food processing plants. Plant layout- different types. Flow process charts. Machine flow diagrams. Selection of processing and handling machines. Plant utilities, electricity, water, steam, air, raw material requirements. Application of system design and principles. Layout plans for different machines and utilities. Plant specifications and cost estimates, plant profile. Process plant sanitation and hygiene

Detailed knowledge about food processing plants is given in this subject.

Fruit and Vegetable Processing

Status, of fruit and vegetable industry, chemical composition and nutritional values of fruits and vegetables. Physiological development, fruit ripening. chemical changes during maturation, physiological disorders. Processing techniques - thermal processing canning and bottling, concentration/evaporation: freezing, drying/dehydration, methods and equipment, fermented and unfermented fruit beverages. Quality evaluation of fruit and vegetable products. By - product utilization, economic considerations in fruit and vegetable processing.

Fruit and Vegetable Processing and changes in them due to several reasons is taught in this subject.

Seed Technology and Processing

Introduction to seed Technology and its importance. Seed Industry in India, development of seed programmes. General principles of seed production-agronomic and genetic principles. Types of seeds-nucleus, breeders seed, foundation seed and certified seeds. Seed testing for purity, germination, viability, vigour and health. Seed certification standards, regulation and legislations. Seed processing-drying, cleaning, grading, seed treatment and packaging. Handling and storage of seed.

Main topics of Seed Technology, its importance, development is taught in this subject.

Technology of Bakery and Confectionery Foods

Status of bakery food in India. Technology of bread production. Different methods of bread making, equipment and machine used in different unit operations, Cookies & biscuits manufacturing technology, biscuit shaping/ cutting machine, raw materials bulk and others, Role of baking ingredients, quality control of bread biscuits production. PFA rules for raw materials & products, use of preservatives and flour improvers, emulsifies and stabilizers. Technology of cake production, cake quality, cake faults. Different types of cake pastry formulation and production various type of pastry. Wafers, rusks and their production. Losses in baking, packaging of baked products, Bakery sanitation & hygiene. Sugar confectionary, various types of sugar used in confectionary, typical confectionary products like fondants, lozenges and drops, toffees, caramels and fudges, Jams, jellies and marmalades, Chocolate confectionary production technology.

Bakery foods and Confectionery foods and its manufacturing is taught in this subject.

Bio-Process Engineering

Introduction to bioprocess engineering, Bioreactors. Isolation, preservation and maintenance of industrial microorganism. Kinetic of microbial growth and death. Media for industrial fermentation. Air and median sterilization. Bioreactors: Analysis of batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors, biotransformation. Stability of microbial reactors, analysis of mixed microbial populations, specialized bioreactors (pulsed, fluidized, photobioreactors etc.), Measurement and control of bioprocess parameters, product recovery. Removal of microbial cells and solid matter, foam separation, precipitation, filtration, centrifugation, cell disruptions, liquid-liquid extraction, chromatography, membrane process, drying and crystallization, effluent treatment: DOC and COD treatments and disposal of effluents. Enzyme and whole cell immobilization and their industrial applications. Industrial production of chemicals. Alcohol (ethanol), acids (citric, acetic and gluconic), solvents (glycerol, acetone butanol), antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline), amino acids (lysine, glutamic acid), single cell protein. Use of microbes in mineral beneficiation and oil recovery. Elementary idea of canning and packing, sterilization and pasteurization of food products. Technology of typical food/food products (bread, cheese, idli.), Food preservation, Bio-process Instrumentation, modeling and simulation, Process Economics.

Concepts of Bio-Process Engineering and its detailed study is taught in this subject.

Emerging Technologies in Food Processing

Solar refrigeration technology, fluidized bed drying, osmotic dehydration, hurdle technology, applications of probiotics, silicon — membrane packaging technology, food fortification technology, high pressure processing technology, bacto-fugation technology, ultra-sonic treatment/mano-thermo-sonication technology, extrusion cooking technology, irradiation and ultra violet ray treatment technology, cryogenic grinding/cryo-freezing/crusto-freezing, membrane processing technology, super-critical fluid extraction technology, enzymatic extraction and ultra filtration technology, pulsed electronic field processing technology, radio -frequency heating technology, enzymes technology, fermentation technology, magnetic resonance imaging, nondestructive quality assurance techniques.

Awareness of new technologies emerging in the field of Food processing is provided in this subject.

Design of Food Processing Equipment

Transport phenomenon in bioprocess system , Gas liquid/ solid- liquid mass transfer, measurement of oxygen transfer rates , heat transfer, rheology of typical fermentation, mixing, design and analysis of bioreactors, principles of bioreactor , ideal and non ideal bioreactor, multiphase reactors, animal and plant cell reactors, solid substrate fermenters design, control system of food processing plant.

Designing equipment for Food processing is taught in this subject.

Report Writing and Seminar

Technical report writing methodology-title index, list of figures, tables and graphs, statistical analysis. Presentation of results and discussion. Methodology of seminar presentation. Actual presentation of project report in seminar.

Combining Research work and writing reports is taught in this subject.

Industrial Economics and Management

Introduction of subject: Industrialization, economic consequences and social impacts, steps to check effects of industrialization. Definition, nature and scope of industrial economics, tools of economic analysis. Demand analysis, forecasting and decision making. Cost and profit-concepts, cost-revenue and cost control, profit accounting and balance sheets. Break even analysis. Feasibility analysis and report. Marketing and pricing policies. Industrial organizations and management-concepts, characteristics, principles, effective management and scientific management, system’s approach, Production planning, Materials management.

Effects of Industrialization, globalization on Agricultural Engineering is taught in this subject.

Industrial Fermentation

Introduction and definition of fermentation, nutritional value of fermented food, requirement’s of fermentation, various substrate used in fermentation different types of fermenters. Traditional fermented Foods, Sauer kraut. Oriental Fermented Foods like soy sauce, meso, tempeh, tofu and sofu, dairy fermented products, cultured milk, yoghurt, cheese production, Bread fermentation, Baker’s yeast importance in bread fermentation, production technology of baker’s yeast, Citric acid production, Antibiotics production. Vinegar production, Single cell protein. Alcoholic fermentation, production of microbial enzyme.

Concept of fermenting food and its nutritional value is taught in this subject.

Medicinal and Herbal Products Processing

Introduction, Availability, Utilization, Harvest and Post Harvest Management. Nutritional and medicinal values of selected food products, especially fruits and vegetables. Unit operations in processing/processing of selected medicinal crops, Packaging and Marketing Techniques

Harvesting medicinal crops and making them ready for use is taught in this subject.

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