What is PhD?
PhD or Doctor of Philosophy is a doctorate degree with focus on academics and research and is offered by nearly 868 universities in India. In general, PhD course duration is 3 years and a student can complete it within a maximum time span of 5 years.
The basic PhD eligibility criteria is to have a masters degree or an MPhil with a minimum aggregate of 55% marks. There’s a 5% relaxation for all those candidates too who belong to SC/ST/OBCs and differently abled categories. Although, the eligibility will vary as per the college requirement.
This doctorate level degree can be pursued in a variety of specializations that fall under Engineering, Management, Commerce, Arts, Humanities and alike.
Before 2017, Doctor of Philosophy was pursued in a distance education mode, but now as per UGC, it can be pursued only in full-time or part-time mode.
One can pursue PhD from IGNOU under INR 7,000 annually within a maximum duration of 5 years.
Tabulated below are some of the top colleges offering PhD in India, as per NIRF 2020.
|NIRF Ranking 2020||College/University Name||Admission Process||Average Annual Fees (INR)||Average Placement Offer (INR)|
|1||Indian Institute of Technology Madras- [IITM], Chenna||Entrance-based||20, 000||18 LPA|
|2||Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore||Entrance-based||35,200||15 LPA|
|3||Indian Institute of Technology Delhi- [IITD], New Delhi||Entrance-based||30,000||17.5 LPA|
|4||Indian Institute of Technology Bombay- [IITB], Mumbai||Entrance-based||73, 000||13 LPA|
|5||Indian Institute of Technology - [IIT], Kharagpur||Entrance-based||29,000||16 LPA|
Source: Official Websites
Do I Qualify PhD Eligibility Criteria?
In order to pursue PhD, you should meet the mentioned eligibility criteria:
- General Candidates:- Minimum of 55% marks in Post Graduation
- SC/ST/OBC/Differently abled candidates:- Minimum of 50% marks in Post Graduation
- Candidates with prior experience in the field of research or job industry become strongly eligible for the course.
What is PhD Admission Process?
PhD Admissions in India is generally offered to the candidates having qualified entrances like UGC NET, CSIR UGC NET, GATE, etc.
Some of the institutes like IISc Bangalore call the qualified candidates to appear for personal interview rounds and written tests as well.
Once the applications have been released by the university, you can easily apply for admissions in that particular institute. Below are some steps stating the admission procedure for the same.
Step 1:- Visit the official page of the institution and go through all the details related to PhD admissions and then select the subject in which you wish to pursue your PhD course.
Step 2:- The next step includes filling the application form, uploading required documents as per the guidelines and fee payment.
Step 3:- Submit your research proposal with the application form if asked by that particular institute.
These research proposals are asked for a scrutiny process. After the scrutiny, they shortlist candidates who then appear for entrance exams.
Step 4:- As per the need of the institution and specific departments, qualified candidates may also be required to sit for personal interview rounds and written tests.
Once you get an admission, you will be assigned with your research guides.
What are the Top PhD Entrance Exam?
Following are some of the important information of the top PhD entrance exams in India.
|PhD Entrance Exams||Conducting Body||Registration (Tentative)||Exam Dates (Tentative)||Exam Mode|
|CSIR UGC NET||NTA (National Testing Agency)||March 16 - June 30, 2020||To be announced||Online|
|UGC NET||National Testing Agency (NTA)||March 16 - June 30, 2020||To be announced||Online|
|GATE||Any of the IITs||September-October 2020||February 2021||Online|
|JNUEE||Jawaharlal Nehru University||March 2021||To be announced||Online|
|VITMEE||VIT University||March 2021||To be announced||Online|
|CUCET||Rajasthan Central University||March 2021||To be notified later||Offline|
How to get admission into a top PhD college?
While you are busy choosing and shortlisting colleges to pursue your PhD from, do not forget to give special attention to the entrances on the basis of which you will be selected.
PhD entrance exams often are divided into two sections. One section comprises common topics, irrespective of subject one is interested in, while the other section is more subject-oriented.
Candidates can refer to the following table to know more about the topics of PhD entrance exams.
|Research Aptitude||Comprehension||Logical Reasoning|
|Teaching Aptitude||Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude||People, Development and Environment|
|Communication||Data Interpretation||Higher Education System|
Candidates are also suggested to practice previous papers and appear for online mock tests for better understanding.
In order to secure admission in a top PhD college, prepare well for your research eligibility test that tests your subject knowledge.
Lastly, make sure that you take preparations for presenting yourself well for personal interviews and written tests.
Note:- Keep an eye on the newspapers and the websites of the universities to get admission in the subject of your choice
|UGC NET 2020 Sample Papers, Old Question Papers and Mock Tests||CSIR UGC NET 2020 Question Papers, Sample Papers and Mock Tests||GATE 2020 Practice Papers|
PhD has various specializations and in every domain. Few of the highly opted specializations are mentioned below:
- PhD in Management: The course puts a strong emphasis on in-depth study of principles of the business world. PhD in Management engages you more in the research related to the B schools and how to manage the business environment.
|Average Fees||Up to INR 1 LPA|
|Average Salary||INR 7- 16|
|PhD in Management Colleges in India|
- PhD in Computer Science: PhD in Computer Science puts up more focus on the preparation of researchers and educators in the domain of computer science.
|Average Fees||Up to INR 1 LPA|
|Average Salary||INR 13 LPA|
|PhD in Computer Science Colleges in India|
- PhD in Psychology: PhD in Psychology study focuses on the psychology related subjects that will be dealing with the human mindset and the environment binding it
|Average Fees||Up to INR 22,000- 3.65 LPA|
|Average Salary||INR 5 LPA|
|PhD in Psychology Colleges in India|
- PhD in Economics: PhD in Economics focuses on the economic aspects of the country. It typically covers the microeconomics and macroeconomics subjects. This course also involves a lot of research papers.
|Average Fees||Up to INR 69,000 to 4 LPA|
|Average Salary||INR 2-9 LPA|
|PhD in Economics Colleges in India|
More PhD Specializations
Following are the major streams in which students can pursue a PhD degree in India.
Source: University Website and Payscale
The course curriculum for every specialization in PhD is different. Here the syllabus may vary from subject to subject of respective specialization.
The coursework comprises both classroom study and research work. Basically the course structure includes the following things:-
- Course Work
- Qualifying Examination
- Research proposal preparation
- Thesis work
Note:- The thesis work should have your original contribution in the already existing knowledge of the subject.
PhD IIT Madras vs PhD IISc Bangalore: What is the Difference?
The table below shows some of the major differences between what it’s like to pursue PhD programs from IIT Madras and from IISc Bangalore:
|Parameter||IIT Madras||IISc Bangalore|
|College Overview||It is a governmental Central University established in 1959. The institute is highly reputed and has been ranked at the first position by the NIRF under the discipline of Engineering and at the 15th position under the discipline of Management||Indian Institute of Science was founded by Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata in 1909. The institute was established to promote scientific temper and research attitude in the nation.|
|Average Fees||INR 20, 000||INR 35,200|
|Specializations||Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering Computer Science and Engineering, Applied Sciences and Biotechnology sciences||Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Mathematical Sciences, Physical Sciences.|
|Average Package Offered||INR 18 LPA||INR 15 LPA|
|Placement Companies||Intex, Flipkart, Infosys, Samsung etc.||Google, HCL Technologies, Infosys, Technical Wings of Armed Forces, Space Research Organization, ETC|
Source: University Websites and Payscale
PhD vs MPhil: What is the Difference?
PhD stands for Doctor of Philosophy and MPhil stands for Master of Philosophy. Both the courses are based on in-depth research. It depends on your interest which course you would like to pursue. Below are some of the key differences between PhD and MPhil.
|Main aim of Study||To offer an opportunity to the student to add something new to the already existing knowledge||To allow a student to master a particular subject and provide more relevant information for further research.|
|Duration||3 years||1-2 Years|
|Concerned topic||Original thesis||Research basics|
|Eligibility||55% for General candidates in PG 45% for SC/ST/OBC/specially abled category in PG||Graduation from any college/university with a minimum of 55% (relaxable for reserved category candidates) marks at UG level.|
|Admission Process||Entrance Test based/Merit-based (Based on M.Phil or equivalent percentage)||Merit-based (Based on PG percentage)/ Entrance Test based|
|Average Fee||INR 50,000-2 LPA||INR 30,000 -1 LPA|
|Top Colleges||Indian Institute of Technology Madras- [IITM], Chenna, Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi- [IITD], New Delhi, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay- [IITB], Mumbai, Indian Institute of Technology - [IIT], Kharagpur, etc
||Panjab University, Amity University, JNU, Christ University, Mumbai University, Shobhit University, etc|
|Average Salary package||INR 4-15 LPA||INR 3-10 LPA|
|Job Profiles||University professor, Industrial R&D Lab professionals, Start-Up mentors, Authors, Senior research scientist, etc||Civil Servant, Assistant Professor, Economist, Author, Journalist, Researcher, etc|
Source: University Website and Payscale
What After PhD?
After pursuing a Director of Philosophy, you have a wide range of opportunities and career options in the specified field.
The degree of doctor of philosophy is now found everywhere and they are not just limited to university professors anymore. One can go for an Advisory position, writers, researchers etc.
These professionals are generally needed in the fields like Universities, Colleges, Science centers, Statistical units, Plant Breeding centers, Equipment manufacturers, News agency, Pharmaceutical industry, Publishers, Software development etc.
Tabulated below are some of the popular PhD Jobs available,along with the description and average salary offered to them.
|Job Profile||Job Description||Average Salary (INR)|
|University Professor||They instruct students in a wide variety of academic and vocational subjects.||10 LPA|
|Start-Up Mentors||They provide their perspective on the direction that a startup may take and they also advise on new ideas.||6 LPA|
|Research Scientists||They are responsible for undertaking and analysing information from investigations, experiments and trials.||12 LPA|
|Authors||Authors holding a PhD degree write about the subject that interests readers and which they have done their specializations and researches..||9LPA|
Since a PhD degree is considered as the highest academic degree, one can remain indulged in research and findings, if not willing to get placed in any of the above mentioned positions.
As many top industries and governmental institutions like CSIR and DRDO, Amazon, Google, etc prefer to invest in the arena of R&D, PhD degree holders can contribute to the same by being associated with the same.
The future scope for these professionals does not end here, but they are also invited by the foreign universities to conduct research and seminars.
To conclude, PhD degree holders can start their online portal to share wide contents on their area of specializations to enlighten the audiences on the same.
Ques. What is a PhD full Form?
Ans. PhD stands for Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor Philosophiae.
Ques. What is the eligibility required for doing a PhD?
Ans. The basic PhD eligibility criteria one need to possess is to have a masters degree with a minimum aggregate of 55% marks. Candidates belonging to SC/ST/OBCs and differently abled categories get a 5% relaxation in the same .
Ques. What is the admission process of PhD in India?
Ans. PhD admission in India is offered to candidates after cracking the entrances like UGC NET, CSIR UGC NET, GATE, etc.
Ques. What is the difference between PhD and M.Phil?
Ans. M.Phil is more focussed on the masters in the specified field and already given thesis whereas PhD allows one to produce the original thesis to support their work.
Ques. What to do after PhD?
Ans. PhD is the highest degree till now in Indian academia, so you can go for various types of researcher jobs.
Ques. What is the average salary package of a PhD holder?
Ans. An average salary package of a PhD holder is up to INR 4-15 LPA.
Ques. What is the age limit of PhD in India?
Ans. There is no age limit to pursue Phd through GATE.
Ques. Is pursuing or practicing a PhD free in the US?
Ans. Most of the PhD programs are almost free in the US. The best part is that they pay you while you are there.
Ques. Which PhD pays most in India?
Ans. In India candidates holding PhD in Science, Engineering, Technology and Mathematics, are the highly paid PhD holders.