# GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) 2022: Important Topics, Exam Pattern, Previous Year Question Papers

Exams Prep Master | Updated On - Oct 7, 2021

GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) 2022 consists of 6 core subjects, engineering mathematics and general aptitude. GATE Biotechnology 2022 is divided into three sections General Aptitude, Engineering Mathematics and Core Discipline. The Core Discipline of Biotechnology carries the maximum weightage that is 70%. The students are advised to read thoroughly the topics mentioned in the syllabus. Check GATE 2021 CSE Exam Pattern

Important topics in GATE Biotechnology Syllabus 2022 include engineering Mathematics, Biotechnology, Recombinant DNA Technology, Transport Processes, Upstream and Downstream Processing etc. The candidates can select Biomedical/ Life Sciences (BM/ XL) as their second paper as GATE 2022 allows candidates to sit for a maximum of two papers. GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) 2022 will consist of questions from graduate level. Check GATE 2022 Question Paper

GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology

## GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) 2022

GATE Biotechnology paper will have questions from topics:

### Section 1 – Engineering Mathematics

• Linear Algebra: Matrix algebra, systems of linear equations, consistency and rank, Eigen values and Eigen vectors.
• Calculus: Mean value theorems, theorems of integral calculus, partial derivatives, maxima and minima, multiple integrals, Fourier series, vector identities, line, surface and volume integrals, Stokes, Gauss and Green’s theorems.
• Differential equations: First order equation (linear and nonlinear), second order linear differential equations with constant coefficients, method of variation of parameters, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, initial and boundary value problems, solution of partial differential equations: variable separable method.
• Analysis of complex variables: Analytic functions, Cauchy’s integral theorem and integral formula, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, residue theorem, solution of integrals.
• Probability and Statistics: Sampling theorems, conditional probability, mean, median, mode, standard deviation and variance; random variables: discrete and continuous distributions: normal, Poisson and binomial distributions.
• Numerical Methods: Matrix inversion, solutions of nonlinear algebraic equations, iterative methods for solving differential equations, numerical integration, regression and correlation analysis.

### Section 2 – General Biotechnology

• Biochemistry: Biomolecules - structure and function; Biological membranes - structure, membrane channels and pumps, molecular motors, action potential and transport processes; Basic concepts and regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids; Photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain. Enzymes - Classification, catalytic and regulatory strategies; Enzyme kinetics - Michaelis-Menten equation; Enzyme inhibition - competitive, non-competitive and uncompetitive inhibition.
• Microbiology: Bacterial classification and diversity; Microbial Ecology - microbes in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems; Microbial interactions; Viruses - structure and classification; Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interactions; Antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance.
• Immunology: Innate and adaptive immunity, humoral and cell mediated immunity; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; T cell and B cell development; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organs; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction; Immunization and vaccines.

### Section 3 – Genetics, Cellular, and Molecular Biology

• Genetics and Evolutionary Biology: Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics - transformation, transduction and conjugation; Horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements; Chromosomal variation; Genetic disorders; Population genetics; Epigenetics; Selection and inheritance; Adaptive and neutral evolution; Genetic drift; Species and speciation.
• Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell-Genetics and Evolutionary Biology: Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics - transformation, transduction and conjugation; Horizontal gene transfer and transposable elements; Chromosomal variation; Genetic disorders; Population genetics; Epigenetics; Selection and inheritance; Adaptive and neutral evolution; Genetic drift; Species and speciation.
• Molecular Biology: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; Mutations and mutagenesis; Regulation of gene expression; Nucleic acid - replication, transcription, splicing, translation and their regulatory mechanisms; Non-coding and microRNA; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair.

### Section 4 – Fundamentals of Biological Engineering

• Engineering principles applied to biological systems: Material and energy balances for reactive and non-reactive systems; Recycle, bypass and purge processes; Stoichiometry of growth and product formation; Degree of reduction, electron balance, theoretical oxygen demand.
• Classical thermodynamics and Bioenergetics: Laws of thermodynamics; Solution thermodynamics; Phase equilibria, reaction equilibria; Ligand binding; Membrane potential; Energetics of metabolic pathways, oxidation and reduction reactions.
• Transport Processes: Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, fluid flow - laminar and turbulent; Mixing in bioreactors, mixing time; Molecular diffusion and film theory; Oxygen transfer and uptake in bioreactor, kLa and its measurement; Conductive and convective heat transfer, LMTD, overall heat transfer coefficient; Heat exchangers

### Section 5 – Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

• Bioreaction engineering: Rate law, zero and first order kinetics; Ideal reactors - batch, mixed flow and plug flow; Enzyme immobilization, diffusion effects - Thiele modulus, effectiveness factor, Damkoehler number; Kinetics of cell growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Structured and unstructured models; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Microbial and enzyme reactors; Optimization and scale up.
• Upstream and Downstream Processing: Media formulation and optimization; Sterilization of air and media; Filtration - membrane filtration, ultrafiltration; Centrifugation - high speed and ultra; Cell disruption; Principles of chromatography - ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC, HPLC and FPLC; Extraction, adsorption and drying.
• Instrumentation and Process Control: Pressure, temperature and flow measurement devices; Valves; First order and second order systems; Feedback and feed forward control; Types of controllers – proportional, derivative and integral control, tuning of controllers.

### Section 6 – Plant, Animal and Microbial Biotechnology

• Plants: Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and cell suspension culture system - methodology, kinetics of growth and nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites; Hairy root culture; Plant products of industrial importance; Artificial seeds; Somaclonal variation; Protoplast, protoplast fusion - somatic hybrid and cybrid; Transgenic plants - direct and indirect methods of gene transfer techniques; Selection marker and reporter gene; Plastid transformation.
• Animals: Culture media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro- carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals; Knock-out and knock-in animals.
• Microbes: Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites - Biofuels, bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins and metabolites; Clinical-, food- and industrial- microbiology; Screening strategies for new products.

### Section 7 – Recombinant DNA technology and Other Tools in Biotechnology

• Recombinant DNA technology: Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors - plasmids, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, bacterial and yeast artificial chromosomes; Expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation and cloning, strategies for production of recombinant proteins; Transposons and gene targeting;
• Molecular tools: Polymerase chain reaction; DNA/RNA labelling and sequencing; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; DNA fingerprinting, RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; CRISPR-Cas; Biosensing and biosensors.
• Analytical tools: Principles of microscopy - light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Principles of spectroscopy - UV, visible, CD, IR, fluorescence, FT-IR, MS, NMR; Electrophoresis; Micro- arrays; Enzymatic assays; Immunoassays - ELISA, RIA, immunohistochemistry; immunoblotting; Flow cytometry; Whole genome and ChIP sequencing.
• Computational tools: Bioinformatics resources and search tools; Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis - sequence file formats, scoring matrices, alignment, phylogeny; Genomics, proteomics, metabolomics; Gene prediction; Functional annotation; Secondary structure and 3D structure prediction; Knowledge discovery in biochemical databases; Metagenomics; Metabolic engineering and systems biology.

### Section 8 - General Aptitude

Verbal Ability Numerical Ability
English grammar; Sentence completion, Instructions; Verbal analogies, Word groups; Critical reasoning, Verbal deduction.  Numerical computation; Numerical reasoning; Numerical estimation; Data interpretation.

Weightage of Important Topics

## GATE Biotechnology (BT) Weightage of Important Topics

Important Topics Weightage (Marks)
General Aptitude 10
Engineering Mathematics 10-15
Plant and Animal Biotechnology 15-20
Bioprocess Engineering 10-15
Biotechnology 20-25
Exam Pattern for Biotechnology

## GATE Exam Pattern for Biotechnology (BT) 2022

• Mode of Examination: Online
• Duration of exam: 3 hours
• Type of questions: MCQs, MSQs, & NATs
• Total Sections: 3 sections i.e. General Aptitude, Mathematics, Subject-based
• Total questions: 65
• Total marks: 100 marks
• Negative marking: for MCQs only
Section  Distribution of Marks Total Marks Types of questions
General Aptitude 5 questions of 1 mark each 5 questions of 2 marks each 15 marks  MCQs
Subject Paper (BT) + Engineering Mathematics 25 questions of 1 mark each 30 questions of 2 marks each  85 marks MCQs, MSQ and NATs
Marking Scheme for Biotechnology

## GATE Marking Scheme for Biotechnology (BT) 2022

Type of question Negative marking for wrong answer
MCQ 1/3 for 1 mark questions 2/3 for 2 marks questions
NAT/MSQ No negative marking

Check Detailed GATE 2022 Exam Pattern

GATE Biotechnology Books

## GATE Biotechnology Books 2022

Given below are the recommended books that would be beneficial in GATE Preparation.

Books Author/Publisher
Biotechnology Pranav Kumar
Principles of Biochemistry Lehninger
Bioprocess Engineering Principles P. Doran
GATE General Aptitude and Mathematics GK Publishers
Molecular Cell Biology lodish and Baltimore
Previous Year Question Paper

## GATE Biotechnology (BT) Previous Year Question Paper

The students are advised to go through the following GATE Biotechnology 2022 Previous Year Question Paper along with their answer keys before appearing for the exam.

2021 Check Here Check Here
2020 Check Here  Check Here
2019 Check Here  Check Here
2018 Check Here  Check Here
2017  Check Here  Check Here
Sample Questions for Biotechnology

## GATE Sample Questions for Biotechnology (BT)

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Ans. D

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Ans. D

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Ans. D

Also Check GATE Mock Test 2022

GATE Syllabus Of Other Papers

## GATE 2022 Syllabus Of Other Papers

Biotechnology FAQs

## GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) 2022 FAQs

Ques. What is the best study material to prepare for GATE 2022 Biotechnology Syllabus?

Ans: The best study material to prepare for GATE 2022 Biotechnology Syllabus is your notes or books from graduation because the syllabus will be based on graduation level. The authorities will release the syllabus and candidates must follow that syllabus only. Some of the important topics are:

• General Biotechnology
• Recombinant DNA Technology
• Plant and Animal Biotechnology
• Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

Ques. GATE 2022 Biotechnology Syllabus will be divided into how many sections?

Ans: There will be 3 sections in GATE 2022 Biotechnology Syllabus:

• General Aptitude – 15%
• Engineering Mathematics – 13%
• Core Subject – 72%

Ques. Will there be negative marking in GATE 2022 Biotechnology paper?

Ans: Yes, there will be negative marking in GATE 2022 Biotechnology paper:

Type of question Negative marking for wrong answer
MCQ 1/3 for 1 mark questions 2/3 for 2 marks questions
NAT/MSQ No negative marking

Ques. What is the subject code for GATE Biotechnology 2022?

Ans. The subject code for GATE Biotechnology 2022 is BT.

Ques. Which topic has the highest weightage in GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) 2022?

Ans. The topic with the highest weightage in GATE Syllabus for Biotechnology (BT) 2022 is Plant and Animal Biotechnology, as it is worth almost 15 to 20 marks.

Ques. What are the topics in General Biotechnology for GATE 2022?

Ans. The topics in General Biotechnology for GATE 2022

• Biochemistry
• Microbiology
• Immunology

Ques. What is the syllabus for GATE General Aptitude 2022?

Ans. The syllabus for GATE General Aptitude is as follows:

Verbal Ability Numerical Ability
English grammar; Sentence completion, Instructions; Verbal analogies, Word groups; Critical reasoning, Verbal deduction.  Numerical computation; Numerical reasoning; Numerical estimation; Data interpretation.

Ques. What is the syllabus for GATE Engineering Mathematics 2022?

Ans. The syllabus for GATE Engineering Mathematics is as follows:

• Linear Algebra
• Calculus
• Differential Equations
• Probability and Statistics
• Numerical Methods

Ques. How many candidates clear for GATE Biotechnology 2022?

Ans. Around 21-30% candidates clear for GATE Petroleum.

*The article might have information for the previous academic years, which will be updated soon subject to the notification issued by the University/College.

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